BibTeX and CFF

Disclaimer

This article was reviewed and updated in 2024, along with the release of cffr v0.6.0.

Citation

Please cite this article as:

Hernangómez D (2022). “BibTeX and CFF, a potential crosswalk.” The cffr package, Vignettes. doi:10.21105/joss.03900 https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.03900, https://docs.ropensci.org/cffr/articles/bibtex_cff.html.

A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users:

@article{hernangomez2022,
    title        = {{BibTeX} and {CFF}, a potential crosswalk},
    author       = {Diego Hernangómez},
    year         = 2022,
    journal      = {The {cffr} package},
    volume       = {Vignettes},
    doi          = {10.21105/joss.03900},
    url          = {https://docs.ropensci.org/cffr/articles/bibtex_cff.html}
}

BibTeX and R

BibTeX is a well-known format for storing references created by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport back in 1985. BibTeX can be reused by other software, such as LaTeX, to add references to scholarly works. An example structure of a BibTeX entry would be:

@book{einstein1921,
    title        = {Relativity: The Special and the General Theory},
    author       = {Einstein, A.},
    year         = 1920,
    publisher    = {Henry Holt and Company},
    address      = {London, United Kingdom},
    isbn         = 9781587340925
}

In this case, the entry (identified as einstein1921) refers to a book. This entry can then be used in a document to include references to it. In R (R Core Team 2021), we can replicate this structure using the bibentry() and toBibtex() functions:

entry <- bibentry("book",
  key = "einstein1921",
  title = "Relativity: The Special and the General Theory",
  author = person("A.", "Einstein"),
  year = 1920,
  publisher = "Henry Holt and Company",
  address = "London, United Kingdom",
  isbn = 9781587340925,
)

toBibtex(entry)
#> @Book{einstein1921,
#>   title = {Relativity: The Special and the General Theory},
#>   author = {A. Einstein},
#>   year = {1920},
#>   publisher = {Henry Holt and Company},
#>   address = {London, United Kingdom},
#>   isbn = {9781587340925},
#> }

The final results of the entry as a text string would be parsed as1:

Einstein A (1920). Relativity: The Special and the General Theory. Henry Holt and Company, London, United Kingdom. ISBN 9781587340925.

Additionally, the cffr package (Hernangómez 2021) incorporates a function cff_from_bibtex() that can be used to read and transform BibTeX strings into different formats:

string <- "@book{einstein1921,
    title        = {Relativity: The Special and the General Theory},
    author       = {Einstein, A.},
    year         = 1920,
    publisher    = {Henry Holt and Company},
    address      = {London, United Kingdom},
    isbn         = 9781587340925}"

# To cff
library(cffr)
cff_format <- cff_from_bibtex(string)

cff_format
#> type: book
#> title: 'Relativity: The Special and the General Theory'
#> authors:
#> - family-names: Einstein
#>   given-names: A.
#> year: '1920'
#> publisher:
#>   name: Henry Holt and Company
#>   address: London, United Kingdom
#> isbn: '9781587340925'

# To citation R format and bibtex
citation_format <- cff_to_bibentry(cff_format)
class(citation_format)
#> [1] "bibentry"
citation_format
#> Einstein A (1920). _Relativity: The Special and the General Theory_.
#> Henry Holt and Company, London, United Kingdom. ISBN 9781587340925.

toBibtex(citation_format)
#> @Book{einstein:1920,
#>   title = {Relativity: The Special and the General Theory},
#>   author = {A. Einstein},
#>   year = {1920},
#>   publisher = {Henry Holt and Company},
#>   address = {London, United Kingdom},
#>   isbn = {9781587340925},
#> }

BibTeX Definitions

Patashnik (1988) provides a comprehensive explanation of the BibTeX formats. Let’s distinguish between Entries and Fields.

Entries

Each entry type defines a different type of work. The 14 entry types defined in BibTeX are:

  1. @article: An article from a journal or magazine.
  2. @book: A book with an explicit publisher.
  3. @booklet: A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution.
  4. @conference: Equivalent to @inproceedings, included for Scribe compatibility.
  5. @inbook: A part of a book, which may be a chapter (or section) and/or a range of pages.
  6. @incollection: A part of a book having its own title.
  7. @inproceedings: An article in conference proceedings.
  8. @manual: Technical documentation.
  9. @mastersthesis: A Master’s thesis.
  10. @misc: Use this type when nothing else fits.
  11. @phdthesis: A PhD thesis.
  12. @proceedings: The proceedings of a conference.
  13. @techreport: A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series.
  14. @unpublished: A document having an author and title, but not formally published.

Other implementations similar to BibTeX, such as BibLaTeX (Kime, Wemheuer, and Lehman 2023), expand the definitions of entries to include other types such as online resources, software, or datasets. In BibTeX, these entries should be reclassified as @misc.

In R, the bibentry() base function does not implement @conference. However, we can use @inproceedings, instead given that the definition is identical.

Fields

Similar to the Entries, Patashnik (1988) also provides definitions for each of the possible standard BibTeX fields. While an entry must include certain required fields, it can also include additional fields that might be ignored in the raw implementation of BibTeX. Let’s explore some of these fields:

  1. address: Typically represents the address of the publisher or another institution. In the case of @conference, @inproceedings and @proceedings this field indicates where the conference was held.
  2. annote: An annotation. Although not used by standard bibliography styles, it may be relevant for producing annotated bibliographies.
  3. author: Contains the name(s) of the author(s), following the format described in the LaTeX book (Lamport 1986).
  4. booktitle: Refers to the title of a book, part of which is being cited. For @book entries, use the title field instead.
  5. chapter: Indicates a chapter (or section) number.
  6. crossref: Refers to the database key of the entry being cross-referenced.
  7. edition: Specifies the edition of a @book, e.g., "Second". The ordinal should have the first letter capitalized; standard styles convert to lowercase when necessary.
  8. editor: Contains the name(s) of editor(s), following the conventions in the LaTeX book (Lamport 1986). If there is also an author field, the editor field specifies the editor of the book or collection where the reference appears.
  9. howpublished: Describes how something unusual has been published. The first word should be capitalized.
  10. institution: Represents the sponsoring institution of a technical report.
  11. journal: Refers to the name of a journal.
  12. key: Used for alphabetizing, cross-referencing, and creating a label when author information is missing.
  13. month: Indicates the month in which the work was published or, for an unpublished work, when it was written. Use the standard three-letter abbreviation (e.g., jan, feb, mar) as described in Appendix B.1.3 of the LaTeX book (Lamport 1986).
  14. note: Provides any additional information that can assist the reader. The first word should be capitalized.
  15. number: Represents the number of a journal, magazine, technical report, or a work in a series. An issue of a journal or magazine is usually identified by its volume and number. Organizations issuing technical reports often assign them numbers, and sometimes books are given numbers within a named series.
  16. organization: Refers to the organization that sponsors a @conference or publishes a manual.
  17. pages: Specifies one or more page numbers or a range of numbers (e.g., 42--111 or 7,41,73--97 or 43+).
  18. publisher: Indicates the publisher’s name.
  19. school: Provides the name of the school where a thesis was written.
  20. series: Specifies the name of a series or set of books. When citing an entire book, the title field gives its title, and an optional series field provides the name of a series or multi-volume set in which the book is published.
  21. title: Represents the work’s title.
  22. type: Describes the type of a technical report (e.g., “Research Note”).
  23. volume: Refers to the volume of a journal or multi-volume book.
  24. year: Indicates the year of publication or, for an unpublished work, the year it was written. Generally, it should consist of four numerals (e.g., 1984).

As in the case of the Entries, other implementations such as BibLaTeX recognize additional fields.

In BibTeX, there exists a strict relationship between Entries and Fields. Depending on the type of entry, certain fields are required, while others are optional or even ignored.

The following table summarizes the relationship between Entries and Fields in BibTeX. Required fields are flagged as x, and optional fields are flagged as o. For more detailed information, refer to Patashnik (1988).

BibTeX, required fields by entry
field @article @book @booklet @inbook @incollection @conference, @inproceedings
address o o o o o
annote
author x x o x x x
booktitle x x
chapter x o
crossref
edition o o o
editor x x o o
howpublished o
institution
journal x
key
month o o o o o o
note o o o o o o
number o o o o o
organization o
pages o x o o
publisher x x x o
school
series o o o o
title x x x x x x
type o o
volume o o o o o
year x x o x x x
(cont) BibTeX, required fields by entry
field @manual @mastersthesis, phdthesis @misc @proceedings @techreport @unpublished
address o o o o
annote
author o x o x x
booktitle
chapter
crossref
edition o
editor o
howpublished o
institution x
journal
key
month o o o o o o
note o o o o o x
number o o
organization o o
pages
publisher o
school x
series o
title x x o x x x
type o o
volume o
year o x o x x o

It can be seen that only a subset of fields is necessary for any entry. For instance, title, year, and author are either required or optional in almost every entry, whereas crossref, annote, or key are never mandatory.

Citation File Format

Citation File Format (CFF) (Druskat et al. 2021) consists of plain text files containing both human- and machine-readable citation information for software and datasets. Within CFF, there are two important keys: preferred-citation and references, which play a crucial role in citing and referring to related works:

  • preferred-citation: Refers to another work that should be cited instead of the software or dataset itself.
  • references: Includes reference(s) to other creative works related to the software or dataset. Similar to a list of references in a scholarly paper, these references may encompass papers describing the abstract concepts of the software or algorithms implemented in the software version.

These two keys are expected to be definition.reference objects, as defined in the Guide to Citation File Format schema version 1.2.0, and they may contain the following keys:

Valid keys on [CFF]{underline} definition-reference objects
abbreviation abstract authors collection-doi collection-title
collection-type commit conference contact copyright
data-type database-provider database date-accessed date-downloaded
date-published date-released department doi edition
editors editors-series end entry filename
format identifiers institution isbn issn
issue issue-date issue-title journal keywords
languages license license-url loc-end loc-start
location medium month nihmsid notes
number number-volumes pages patent-states pmcid
publisher recipients repository repository-artifact repository-code
scope section senders start status
term thesis-type title translators type
url version volume volume-title year
year-original

These keys are equivalent to the BibTeX fields, with the exception of the key type. In CFF, this key defines the type of work2, making it analogous to the BibTeX entries.

Proposed Crosswalk

The cffr package (Hernangómez 2021) provides utilities for converting BibTeX entries (via the R base function bibentry()) to CFF files and vice versa. This section describes how the conversion between both formats has been implemented. The crosswalk is partially based on Haines and The Ruby Citation File Format Developers (2021)3.

In the following two sections, I present an overview of the proposed mapping between the Entries and Fields of BibTeX and the CFF keys. After this initial mapping, I propose further transformations to enhance compatibility between both systems using different Entry Models.

For better clarity, when a field is in bold (e.g., @book, edition), it corresponds to BibTeX, and when the field is underlined (e.g., book, edition), it corresponds to CFF.

Entry/Type Crosswalk

For converting general BibTeX entries to CFF types, the following crosswalk is proposed:

Entry/Type crosswalk: From BibTeX to CFF
BibTeX Entry CFF key: type Notes
@article article
@book, @inbook book @inbook is a book with chapter and/or pages
@booklet pamphlet
@conference conference-paper
@incollection generic Needs additional fields
@inproceedings conference-paper
@manual manual
@mastersthesis, @phdthesis thesis Identified by thesis-type
@misc generic
@proceedings proceedings
@techreport report
@unpublished unpublished

The previous crosswalk has the following specifications:

  • @book, @inbook, and @incollection are closely related in BibTeX4. While @inbook and @incollection both reference parts of a @book, the former is used for citing sections, chapters, pages, or other specific parts, whereas the latter is used for citing parts with a specific title. Since CFF allows keys type:book and collection-type: book, we may utilize a combination of these fields to tag each entry type in CFF accordingly.
  • @mastersthesis and @phdthesis would be tagged using a combination of type:thesis and thesis-type.

Additionally, considering that CFF allows for a wide range of values5 for the type field, the following conversion would be applied from CFF to BibTeX:

Entry/Type crosswalk: From CFF to BibTeX
CFF key: type BibTeX Entry Notes
book @book, @inbook @inbook is a book with section or start/end (reference to page number or range).
conference, conference-paper @inproceedings
article, magazine-article, newspaper-article @article
manual @manual
pamphlet @booklet
proceedings @proceedings
report @techreport
thesis @mastersthesis, @phdthesis Using thesis-type
unpublished @unpublished
generic @misc, @incollection @incollection is a generic with year,publisher,collection-title
<any other value> @misc

Fields/Key Crosswalk

There is a significant similarity between the definitions and names of certain BibTeX fields and CFF keys. While the equivalence is straightforward in some cases, there are instances where certain keys need to be processed depending on the entry type.

BibTeX - CFF Field/Key crosswalk
BibTeX Field CFF key Notes
address Several possibilities In BibTeX it may be the address of a publisher, conference, organization, institution or school.
annote Not clear, won’t be mapped
author authors
booktitle collection-title
chapter section
crossref Not clear, won’t be mapped
edition edition
editor editors
howpublished medium
institution, school, organization institution No overlapping on BibteX requirements
journal journal
key Not clear, won’t be mapped
month month Fallback: information in date-published
note notes
number issue
pages start & end
publisher publisher
series collection-title if no booktitle
title title
type Won’t be mapped This is a special key in CFF resembling the BibteX entry.
volume volume
year year Fallback: information in date-published

We provide more detail on some of the mappings presented in the table above:

  • Some fields are not mapped because there is no clear equivalence with CFF keys (such as annote, crossref, and key). Regarding the type field, the CFF key type corresponds to the identifier of the work (similar to an entry in BibTeX), therefore, BibTeX type won’t be mapped. These fields are always optional in BibTeX.

  • For the address field, its intended use in BibTeX varies depending on the entry type (e.g., for @inproceedings, it denotes the address of the conference, while for @mastersthesis/@phdthesis, is the address of the school, etc.). Mapping between BibTeX and CFF becomes more complex when related to institutions, resulting in varying final mappings in CFF. When converting from CFF to BibTeX, we propose to follow the same entry-based logic, using the key location as a fallback value when converting to address.

  • In relation with this complexity mentioned above, institution, organization and school would be mapped to institution.

  • series would be mapped to collection-title only on those entries that does not requires booktitle. In practice, this means that collection-title would correspond to booktitle for incollection and inproceedings, and in the rest of cases it would correspond to series. A consequence of this is that series information would be lost for incollection and inproceedings, but on those cases is an optional field.

  • Regarding series, it would be mapped to collection-title only for those entries that do not require booktitle. In practice, this means that collection-title would correspond to booktitle for @incollection and @inproceedings, while in other cases it would correspond to series. As a consequence, series information would be lost for @incollection and @inproceedings, but in those cases, it is an optional field.

  • When converting from CFF to BibTeX, we propose to use date-published as a fallback for extracting month and year fields.

  • When pages is provided as a range separated by --, i.e, pages = {3–5} would be parsed as start: 3, end: 5 in CFF.

Additionally, there are other CFF keys that correspond to BibLaTeX fields. We propose to include these fields in the crosswalk6, even though they are not part of the core BibTeX fields definition.

BibLaTeX - CFF Field/Key crosswalk
BibLaTeX Field CFF key
abstract abstract
date date-published
doi doi
file filename
isbn isbn
issn issn
issuetitle issue-title
pagetotal pages
translator translators
url url
urldate date-accessed
version version

Entry Models

This section presents the specific mapping proposed for each of the BibTeX entries, providing further information on how each field is treated. Examples are adapted from the xampl.bib file provided with the bibtex package (Patashnik and Berry 2010).

@article

The crosswalk of @article does not require any special treatment.

@article Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@article type: article, magazine-article, newspaper-article
author (required) authors
title (required) title
journal (required) journal
year (required) year
volume volume
number issue
pages start and end
month month
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

@article{article-full,
    title        = {The Gnats and Gnus Document Preparation System},
    author       = {Leslie A. Aamport},
    year         = 1986,
    month        = jul,
    journal      = {{G-Animal's} Journal},
    volume       = 41,
    number       = 7,
    pages        = {73+},
    note         = {This is a full ARTICLE entry}
}

CFF entry

type: article
title: The Gnats and Gnus Document Preparation System
authors:
- family-names: Aamport
  given-names: Leslie A.
year: '1986'
month: '7'
journal: G-Animal's Journal
volume: '41'
issue: '7'
notes: This is a full ARTICLE entry
start: 73+

From CFF to BibTeX

@Article{aamport:1986,
  title = {The Gnats and Gnus Document Preparation System},
  author = {Leslie A. Aamport},
  year = {1986},
  month = {jul},
  journal = {G-Animal's Journal},
  volume = {41},
  number = {7},
  pages = {73+},
  note = {This is a full ARTICLE entry},
}

@book / @inbook

In terms of the fields required in BibTeX, the primary difference between @book and @inbook is that @inbook requires a chapter or page field, while @book does not even allow these fields as optional. Therefore, we propose that an @inbook entry in CFF be treated as a @book with the following supplementary fields:

  1. section: To denote the specific chapter within the book.
  2. start-end: To indicate the range of pages covered by the section.

Additionally, note that in CFF, the series field corresponds to collection-title, and the address field represents the publisher’s address. By last, the key collection-type would be populated with book-series.

@book / @inbook Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@book, @inbook type: book If section or start-end informed, it would be treated as @inbook
author (required) authors At least one of author,editor required
editor (required) editors At least one of author,editor required
title (required) title
publisher (required) publisher
year (required) year
chapter (required in @inbook only) section Not even optional in @book
pages (required in @inbook only) start and end Not even optional in @book
volume volume
number issue
series collection-title
address address property of publisher
edition edition
month month
note notes
type Ignored Only optional in @inbook

There are notable differences in how BibTeX and BibLaTeX handle the @inbook entry (further discussed in the Appendix A). We propose to treat a BibLaTeX @inbook as a BibTeX @incollection.

Examples: @book

BibTeX entry

@book{book-full,
    title        = {Seminumerical Algorithms},
    author       = {Donald E. Knuth},
    year         = 1981,
    month        = 10,
    publisher    = {Addison-Wesley},
    address      = {Reading, Massachusetts},
    series       = {The Art of Computer Programming},
    volume       = 2,
    note         = {This is a full BOOK entry},
    edition      = {Second}
}

CFF entry

type: book
title: Seminumerical Algorithms
authors:
- family-names: Knuth
  given-names: Donald E.
year: '1981'
month: '10'
publisher:
  name: Addison-Wesley
  address: Reading, Massachusetts
collection-title: The Art of Computer Programming
collection-type: book
volume: '2'
notes: This is a full BOOK entry
edition: Second

From CFF to BibTeX

@Book{knuth:1981,
  title = {Seminumerical Algorithms},
  author = {Donald E. Knuth},
  year = {1981},
  month = {oct},
  publisher = {Addison-Wesley},
  address = {Reading, Massachusetts},
  series = {The Art of Computer Programming},
  volume = {2},
  note = {This is a full BOOK entry},
  edition = {Second},
}

Examples: @inbook

BibTeX entry

@inbook{inbook-full,
    title        = {Fundamental Algorithms},
    author       = {Donald E. Knuth},
    year         = 1973,
    month        = 10,
    publisher    = {Addison-Wesley},
    address      = {Reading, Massachusetts},
    series       = {The Art of Computer Programming},
    volume       = 1,
    pages        = {10--119},
    note         = {This is a full INBOOK entry},
    edition      = {Second},
    type         = {Section},
    chapter      = {1.2}
}

CFF entry

type: book
title: Fundamental Algorithms
authors:
- family-names: Knuth
  given-names: Donald E.
year: '1973'
month: '10'
publisher:
  name: Addison-Wesley
  address: Reading, Massachusetts
collection-title: The Art of Computer Programming
collection-type: book
volume: '1'
notes: This is a full INBOOK entry
edition: Second
section: '1.2'
start: '10'
end: '119'

From CFF to BibTeX

@InBook{knuth:1973,
  title = {Fundamental Algorithms},
  author = {Donald E. Knuth},
  year = {1973},
  month = {oct},
  publisher = {Addison-Wesley},
  address = {Reading, Massachusetts},
  series = {The Art of Computer Programming},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {10--119},
  note = {This is a full INBOOK entry},
  chapter = {1.2},
  edition = {Second},
}

@booklet

In @booklet address is mapped to location.

@booklet Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@booklet type: pamphlet
title (required) title
author authors
howpublished medium
address location
month month
year year
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

@booklet{booklet-full,
    title        = {The Programming of Computer Art},
    author       = {Jill C. Knvth},
    date         = {1988-03-14},
    month        = feb,
    address      = {Stanford, California},
    note         = {This is a full BOOKLET entry},
    howpublished = {Vernier Art Center}
}

CFF entry

type: pamphlet
title: The Programming of Computer Art
authors:
- family-names: Knvth
  given-names: Jill C.
date-published: '1988-03-14'
month: '2'
location:
  name: Stanford, California
notes: This is a full BOOKLET entry
medium: Vernier Art Center
year: '1988'

From CFF to BibTeX

@Booklet{knvth:1988,
  title = {The Programming of Computer Art},
  author = {Jill C. Knvth},
  year = {1988},
  month = {feb},
  address = {Stanford, California},
  note = {This is a full BOOKLET entry},
  howpublished = {Vernier Art Center},
  date = {1988-03-14},
}

@conference / @inproceedings

Note that in this case, organization is mapped to institution. Additionally, series would be ignored as there is not clear mapping on CFF for this field.

@conference / @inproceedings Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@conference / @inproceedings type: conference-paper, conference
author (required) authors
title (required) title
booktitle (required) collection-title and conference Additionally collection-type would be populated as “proceedings”
year (required) year
editor editors
volume volume
number issue
series Ignored
pages start and end
address address property of conference
month month
organization institution
publisher publisher
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

@inproceedings{inproceedings-full,
    title        = {On Notions of Information Transfer in {VLSI} Circuits},
    author       = {Alfred V. Oaho and Jeffrey D. Ullman and Mihalis Yannakakis},
    year         = 1983,
    month        = mar,
    booktitle    = {Proc. Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing},
    publisher    = {Academic Press},
    address      = {Boston},
    series       = {All ACM Conferences},
    number       = 17,
    pages        = {133--139},
    editor       = {Wizard V. Oz and Mihalis Yannakakis},
    organization = {The OX Association for Computing Machinery}
}

CFF entry

type: conference-paper
title: On Notions of Information Transfer in VLSI Circuits
authors:
- family-names: Oaho
  given-names: Alfred V.
- family-names: Ullman
  given-names: Jeffrey D.
- family-names: Yannakakis
  given-names: Mihalis
year: '1983'
month: '3'
collection-title: Proc. Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
collection-type: proceedings
publisher:
  name: Academic Press
issue: '17'
editors:
- family-names: Oz
  given-names: Wizard V.
- family-names: Yannakakis
  given-names: Mihalis
institution:
  name: The OX Association for Computing Machinery
start: '133'
end: '139'
conference:
  name: Proc. Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
  address: Boston

From CFF to BibTeX

@InProceedings{oahoullman:1983,
  title = {On Notions of Information Transfer in VLSI Circuits},
  author = {Alfred V. Oaho and Jeffrey D. Ullman and Mihalis Yannakakis},
  year = {1983},
  month = {mar},
  booktitle = {Proc. Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  address = {Boston},
  editor = {Wizard V. Oz and Mihalis Yannakakis},
  number = {17},
  pages = {133--139},
  organization = {The OX Association for Computing Machinery},
}

@incollection

As booktitle is a required field, we propose to map that field to collection-title and the type to generic. Therefore, an @incollection is a type: generic with a collection-title key.

Additionally, series and type would be ignored as there is not clear mapping on CFF for this field.

@incollection Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@incollection type: generic Including a collection-title value
author (required) authors
title (required) title
booktitle (required) collection-title Additionally collection-type would be populated as “collection”
publisher (required) publisher
year (required) year
editor editors
volume volume
number issue
series Ignored
type Ignored
chapter section
pages start and end
address address property of publisher
edition edition
month month
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

@incollection{incollection-full,
    title        = {Semigroups of Recurrences},
    author       = {Daniel D. Lincoll},
    year         = 1977,
    month        = sep,
    booktitle    = {High Speed Computer and Algorithm Organization},
    publisher    = {Academic Press},
    address      = {New York},
    series       = {Fast Computers},
    number       = 23,
    pages        = {179--183},
    note         = {This is a full INCOLLECTION entry},
    editor       = {David J. Lipcoll and D. H. Lawrie and A. H. Sameh},
    chapter      = 3,
    type         = {Part},
    edition      = {Third}
}

CFF entry

type: generic
title: Semigroups of Recurrences
authors:
- family-names: Lincoll
  given-names: Daniel D.
year: '1977'
month: '9'
collection-title: High Speed Computer and Algorithm Organization
collection-type: collection
publisher:
  name: Academic Press
  address: New York
issue: '23'
notes: This is a full INCOLLECTION entry
editors:
- family-names: Lipcoll
  given-names: David J.
- family-names: Lawrie
  given-names: D. H.
- family-names: Sameh
  given-names: A. H.
section: '3'
edition: Third
start: '179'
end: '183'

From CFF to BibTeX

@InCollection{lincoll:1977,
  title = {Semigroups of Recurrences},
  author = {Daniel D. Lincoll},
  year = {1977},
  month = {sep},
  booktitle = {High Speed Computer and Algorithm Organization},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  address = {New York},
  editor = {David J. Lipcoll and D. H. Lawrie and A. H. Sameh},
  number = {23},
  pages = {179--183},
  note = {This is a full INCOLLECTION entry},
  chapter = {3},
  edition = {Third},
}

@manual

As in the case of @conference / @inproceedings, organization is mapped to institution.

@manual Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@manual type: manual
title (required) title
author authors
organization institution
address address property of organization On missing organization mapped to location
edition edition
month month
year year
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

Note that month can’t be parsed to a single integer in the range 1--12 as required on CFF, so it is not parsed to avoid validation errors.

@manual{manual-full,
  title        = {The Definitive Computer Manual},
    author       = {Larry Manmaker},
    year         = 1986,
    month        = {apr-may},
    address      = {Silicon Valley},
    note         = {This is a full MANUAL entry},
    organization = {Chips-R-Us},
    edition      = {Silver}
}

CFF entry

type: manual
title: The Definitive Computer Manual
authors:
- family-names: Manmaker
  given-names: Larry
year: '1986'
notes: This is a full MANUAL entry
institution:
  name: Chips-R-Us
  address: Silicon Valley
edition: Silver

From CFF to BibTeX

@Manual{manmaker:1986,
  title = {The Definitive Computer Manual},
  author = {Larry Manmaker},
  year = {1986},
  address = {Silicon Valley},
  note = {This is a full MANUAL entry},
  edition = {Silver},
  organization = {Chips-R-Us},
}

@mastersthesis / @phdthesis

In terms of field required on BibTeX, it is identical for both @mastersthesis and @phdthesis.

We propose here to identify each type of thesis using the key thesis-type So if thesis-type contains a regex pattern (?i)(phd) it would be recognized as @phdthesis.

Additionally, school would be mapped to institution.

@mastersthesis / @phdthesis Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@mastersthesis, @phdthesis type: thesis Use also thesis-type for identifying the thesis type.
author (required) authors
title (required) title
school (required) institution
year (required) year
type Ignored
address address property of institution
month month
note notes

Examples: @mastersthesis

BibTeX entry

@mastersthesis{mastersthesis-full,
    title        = {Mastering Thesis Writing},
    author       = {Edouard Masterly},
    year         = 1988,
    month        = jun,
    address      = {English Department},
    note         = {This is a full MASTERSTHESIS entry},
    school       = {Stanford University},
    type         = {Master's project}
}

CFF entry

type: thesis
title: Mastering Thesis Writing
authors:
- family-names: Masterly
  given-names: Edouard
year: '1988'
month: '6'
notes: This is a full MASTERSTHESIS entry
institution:
  name: Stanford University
  address: English Department
thesis-type: Master's Thesis

From CFF to BibTeX

@MastersThesis{masterly:1988,
  title = {Mastering Thesis Writing},
  author = {Edouard Masterly},
  year = {1988},
  month = {jun},
  address = {English Department},
  note = {This is a full MASTERSTHESIS entry},
  school = {Stanford University},
}

Examples: @phdthesis

BibTeX entry

@phdthesis{phdthesis-full,
    title        = {Fighting Fire with Fire: Festooning {F}rench Phrases},
    author       = {F. Phidias Phony-Baloney},
    year         = 1988,
    month        = jun,
    address      = {Department of French},
    note         = {This is a full PHDTHESIS entry},
    school       = {Fanstord University},
    type         = {{PhD} Dissertation}
}

CFF entry

type: thesis
title: 'Fighting Fire with Fire: Festooning French Phrases'
authors:
- family-names: Phony-Baloney
  given-names: F. Phidias
year: '1988'
month: '6'
notes: This is a full PHDTHESIS entry
institution:
  name: Fanstord University
  address: Department of French
thesis-type: PhD Thesis

From CFF to BibTeX

@PhdThesis{phonybaloney:1988,
  title = {Fighting Fire with Fire: Festooning French Phrases},
  author = {F. Phidias Phony-Baloney},
  year = {1988},
  month = {jun},
  address = {Department of French},
  note = {This is a full PHDTHESIS entry},
  school = {Fanstord University},
}

@misc

The crosswalk of @misc does not require any special treatment. This entry does not require any field.

Note also that it is mapped to type: generic as @incollection, but in this case booktitle is not even an option, so the proposed definition should cover both @misc and @incollection without problems.

@misc Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@misc type: generic
author authors
title title
howpublished medium
month month
year year
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

@misc{misc-full,
    title        = {Handing out random pamphlets in airports},
    author       = {Joe-Bob Missilany},
    year         = 1984,
    month        = oct,
    note         = {This is a full MISC entry},
    howpublished = {Handed out at O'Hare}
}

CFF entry

type: generic
title: Handing out random pamphlets in airports
authors:
- family-names: Missilany
  given-names: Joe-Bob
year: '1984'
month: '10'
notes: This is a full MISC entry
medium: Handed out at O'Hare

From CFF to BibTeX

@Misc{missilany:1984,
  title = {Handing out random pamphlets in airports},
  author = {Joe-Bob Missilany},
  year = {1984},
  month = {oct},
  note = {This is a full MISC entry},
  howpublished = {Handed out at O'Hare},
}

@proceedings

The proposed model is consistent with @conference / @inproceedings. Note that @proceedings does not prescribe a author field. On this cases, as authors is required on CFF, we would use anonymous7 when converting to CFF and omit it on the conversion from CFF to BibTeX.

@proceedings Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@proceedings type: proceedings
title (required) title and conference
year (required) year
editor editors
volume volume
number issue
series collection-title Additionally collection-type would be populated as “proceedings”
address address property of conference
month month
organization institution
publisher publisher
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

@proceedings{proceedings-full,
    title        = {Proc. Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing},
    year         = 1983,
    month        = mar,
    publisher    = {Academic Press},
    address      = {Boston},
    series       = {All ACM Conferences},
    number       = 17,
    note         = {This is a full PROCEEDINGS entry},
    editor       = {Wizard V. Oz and Mihalis Yannakakis},
    organization = {The OX Association for Computing Machinery}
}

CFF entry

type: proceedings
title: Proc. Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing
authors:
- name: anonymous
year: '1983'
month: '3'
publisher:
  name: Academic Press
collection-title: All ACM Conferences
collection-type: proceedings
issue: '17'
notes: This is a full PROCEEDINGS entry
editors:
- family-names: Oz
  given-names: Wizard V.
- family-names: Yannakakis
  given-names: Mihalis
institution:
  name: The OX Association for Computing Machinery
conference:
  name: All ACM Conferences
  address: Boston

From CFF to BibTeX

@Proceedings{anonymous:1983,
  title = {Proc. Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing},
  year = {1983},
  month = {mar},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  address = {Boston},
  editor = {Wizard V. Oz and Mihalis Yannakakis},
  series = {All ACM Conferences},
  number = {17},
  note = {This is a full PROCEEDINGS entry},
  organization = {The OX Association for Computing Machinery},
}

@techreport

The crosswalk of @techreport does not require any special treatment.

@techreport Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@techreport type: report
author (required) authors
title (required) title
institution (required) institution
year (required) year
type Ignored
number issue
address address property of institution
month month
note notes

Examples

BibTeX entry

@techreport{techreport-full,
    title        = {A Sorting Algorithm},
    author       = {Tom Terrific},
    year         = 1988,
    month        = oct,
    address      = {Computer Science Department, Fanstord, California},
    number       = 7,
    note         = {This is a full TECHREPORT entry},
    institution  = {Fanstord University},
    type         = {Wishful Research Result}
}

CFF entry

type: report
title: A Sorting Algorithm
authors:
- family-names: Terrific
  given-names: Tom
year: '1988'
month: '10'
issue: '7'
notes: This is a full TECHREPORT entry
institution:
  name: Fanstord University
  address: Computer Science Department, Fanstord, California

From CFF to BibTeX

@TechReport{terrific:1988,
  title = {A Sorting Algorithm},
  author = {Tom Terrific},
  year = {1988},
  month = {oct},
  address = {Computer Science Department, Fanstord, California},
  number = {7},
  note = {This is a full TECHREPORT entry},
  institution = {Fanstord University},
}

@unpublished

The crosswalk of @unpublished does not require any special treatment.

@unpublished Model
BibTeX CFF Notes
@unpublished type: unpublished
author (required) authors
title (required) title
note (required) notes
month month
year year

Examples

BibTeX entry

@unpublished{unpublished-minimal,
    title        = {Lower Bounds for Wishful Research Results},
    author       = {Ulrich Underwood and Ned Net and Paul Pot},
    note         = {Talk at Fanstord University (this is a minimal UNPUBLISHED entry)}
}

CFF entry

type: unpublished
title: Lower Bounds for Wishful Research Results
authors:
- family-names: Underwood
  given-names: Ulrich
- family-names: Net
  given-names: Ned
- family-names: Pot
  given-names: Paul
notes: Talk at Fanstord University (this is a minimal UNPUBLISHED entry)

From CFF to BibTeX

ℹ Entry "underwoodnet" does not have year 
@Unpublished{underwoodnet,
  title = {Lower Bounds for Wishful Research Results},
  author = {Ulrich Underwood and Ned Net and Paul Pot},
  note = {Talk at Fanstord University (this is a minimal UNPUBLISHED entry)},
}

Appendix A: @inbook in BibTeX and BibLaTeX

The definition of @inbook and @incollection in BibTeX (Patashnik 1988) is as follows:

  • @inbook: A part of a book, which may be a chapter (or section) and/or a range of pages. Required fields: author or editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher, year (…)

  • @incollection: A part of a book having its own title. Required fields: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year (…)

Whereas BibLaTeX (Kime, Wemheuer, and Lehman 2023) specifies:

  • @inbook: A part of a book which forms a self-contained unit with its own title. Note that the profile of this entry type is different from standard BibTeX, see § 2.3.1. Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year/date (…).

When considering required fields, an important difference is booktitle requirement in BibLaTeX. Notably, BibTeX @incollection requires also this field. Moreover, both BibTeX @incollection and BibLaTeX @inbook emphasize its reference to “a part of a book (…) with its own title”.

In this document, the proposed crosswalk ensures full compatibility with BibTeX. Hence, we propose to consider a BibLaTeX @inbook entry as equivalent to a BibTeX @incollection, given the congruence in their definitions and field requirements.

Examples

BibTeX entry

@inbook{inbook-biblatex,
    author       = {Yihui Xie and Christophe Dervieux and Emily Riederer},
    title        = {Bibliographies and citations},
    booktitle    = {{R} Markdown Cookbook},
    date         = {2023-12-30},
    publisher    = {Chapman and Hall/CRC},
    address      = {Boca Raton, Florida},
    series       = {The {R} Series},
    isbn         = 9780367563837,
    url          = {https://bookdown.org/yihui/rmarkdown-cookbook},
    chapter      = {4.5}
}

CFF entry

type: generic
title: Bibliographies and citations
authors:
- family-names: Xie
  given-names: Yihui
- family-names: Dervieux
  given-names: Christophe
- family-names: Riederer
  given-names: Emily
collection-title: R Markdown Cookbook
collection-type: collection
date-published: '2023-12-30'
publisher:
  name: Chapman and Hall/CRC
  address: Boca Raton, Florida
isbn: '9780367563837'
url: https://bookdown.org/yihui/rmarkdown-cookbook
section: '4.5'
year: '2023'
month: '12'

From CFF to BibTeX

@InCollection{xiedervieux:2023,
  title = {Bibliographies and citations},
  author = {Yihui Xie and Christophe Dervieux and Emily Riederer},
  year = {2023},
  month = {dec},
  booktitle = {R Markdown Cookbook},
  publisher = {Chapman and Hall/CRC},
  address = {Boca Raton, Florida},
  isbn = {9780367563837},
  url = {https://bookdown.org/yihui/rmarkdown-cookbook},
  chapter = {4.5},
  date = {2023-12-30},
}

Appendix B: CFF key:type values

From Druskat et al. (2019) Table 4: Complete list of CFF reference types.

Complete list of CFF reference types.
Reference type string Description
art A work of art, e.g., a painting
article
audiovisual
bill A legal bill
blog A blog post
book A book or e-book
catalogue
conference
conference-paper
data A data set
database An aggregated or online database
dictionary
edited-work An edited work, e.g., a book
encyclopedia
film-broadcast A film or broadcast
generic The fallback type
government-document
grant A research or other grant
hearing
historical-work A historical work, e.g., a medieval manuscript
legal-case
legal-rule
magazine-article
manual A manual
map A geographical map
multimedia A multimedia file
music A music file or sheet music
newspaper-article
pamphlet
patent
personal-communication
proceedings Conference proceedings
report
serial
slides Slides, i.e., a published slide deck
software Software
software-code Software source code
software-container A software container (e.g., a docker container)
software-executable An executable software, i.e., a binary/artifact
software-virtual-machine A virtual machine/vm image
sound-recording
standard
statute
thesis An academic thesis
unpublished
video A video recording
website

References

Druskat, Stephan, Jurriaan H. Spaaks, Neil Chue Hong, Robert Haines, and James Baker. 2019. Citation File Format (CFF) - Specifications.” https://doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.3515946.
Druskat, Stephan, Jurriaan H. Spaaks, Neil Chue Hong, Robert Haines, James Baker, Spencer Bliven, Egon Willighagen, David Pérez-Suárez, and Alexander Konovalov. 2021. “Citation File Format.” https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5171937.
Haines, Robert, and The Ruby Citation File Format Developers. 2021. “Ruby CFF Library.” Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/ZENODO.1184077.
Hernangómez, Diego. 2021. cffr: Generate Citation File Format Metadata for R Packages.” Journal of Open Source Software 6 (67): 3900. https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.03900.
Kime, Philip, Moritz Wemheuer, and Philipp Lehman. 2023. “The biblatex Package.” https://osl.ugr.es/CTAN/macros/latex/contrib/biblatex/doc/biblatex.pdf.
Lamport, Leslie. 1986. LaTeX: A Document Preparation System. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Patashnik, Oren. 1988. BIBTEXTING.” https://osl.ugr.es/CTAN/biblio/bibtex/base/btxdoc.pdf.
Patashnik, Oren, and Karl Berry. 2010. “CTAN: Package Bibtex.” https://ctan.org/pkg/bibtex.
R Core Team. 2021. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/.
Rees, Clea F. 2017. BibLaTeX Cheat Sheet.” https://osl.ugr.es/CTAN/info/biblatex-cheatsheet/biblatex-cheatsheet.pdf.
Xie, Yihui, Christophe Dervieux, and Emily Riederer. 2020. “Bibliographies and Citations.” In R Markdown Cookbook. The R Series. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman; Hall/CRC. https://bookdown.org/yihui/rmarkdown-cookbook.

  1. By default R Pandoc would generate the cite on the Chicago author-date format (Xie, Dervieux, and Riederer 2020)↩︎

  2. See a complete list of possible values of CFF type in Appendix B.↩︎

  3. Note that this software performs only the conversion from CFF to BibTeX, however cffr can perform the conversion in both directions.↩︎

  4. Note that BibLaTeX (Kime, Wemheuer, and Lehman 2023) handles @inbook differently, see Appendix A.↩︎

  5. See Appendix B for all possible values. Information extracted from Druskat et al. (2019).↩︎

  6. See Rees (2017) for a preview of the accepted BibLaTeX fields.↩︎

  7. As proposed on How to deal with unknown individual authors?, (Guide to Citation File Format schema version 1.2.0)↩︎